Friday, 3 June 2011


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Automated pedestrian detection systems provide the means to detect the presence

of pedestrians as they approach the curb prior to crossing the street, and then t

hese systems call the Walk signal without any action required on the part of the

pedestrians. These detectors can also extend the clearance interval in order to a

Custom Essays on transportation

llow slower persons to finish crossing. Whether automated pedestrian detectors, w

hen used in conjunction with standard pedestrian push buttons, would result in fe

wer overall pedestrian-vehicle conflicts and fewer inappropriate crossings (i.e.,

pedestrians beginning to cross during a Dont Walk signal) was evaluated. Befor

e and after video data were collected at intersection locations in Los Angeles, C

alifornia (infrared and microwave), Phoenix, Arizona (microwave), and Rochester,

New York (microwave). The results indicated a significant reduction in vehicle-pe

destrian conflicts, as well as a reduction in the number of pedestrians beginning

to cross during the Dont Walk signal. The differences between microwave and inf

rared detectors were not significant. Detailed field testing of the microwave equ

ipment in Phoenix revealed that fine-tuning of the detection zone is still needed

in order to reduce the number of false calls and missed calls.// DE Automatic-p

edestrian-detection; Before-and-after-studies; Clearance-interval-Traffic-signal-

cycle; Crosswalks-; Equipment-tests; Infrared-detectors; Los-Angeles-California;

Microwave-detectors; Pedestrian-push-buttons; Pedestrian-signals; Pedestrian-vehi

cle-interface; Phoenix-Arizona; Rochester-New-York; Signalized-intersections; Tra

ffic-conflicts; Video-cameras SC SAFETY (H51); HUMAN-FACTORS (H5); OPERATIONS-A


I7) PA Transportation Research Board Business Office AN 007815 UD 00011 1


ORIST BEHAVIOR. AU Huang-HF; Cynecki-MJ SO Transportation Research Record. 000

. (1705) pp6-1 (4 Phot., 5 Tab., 11 Ref.) NT This paper appears in Transportat

ion Research Record No. 1705, Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Research 000

. PB Transportation Research Board, 101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC

, 0418, USA PY 000 IS 061-181 RN 0006685 LA English AB By slowing dow

n vehicle traffic, shortening crossing distances, and enhancing motorist and pede

strian visibility, traffic calming treatments may benefit pedestrians who are cro

ssing the street. The effects of selected traffic calming treatments on pedestria

n and motorist behavior were evaluated at both intersection and midblock location

s. Before and after data were collected in Cambridge, Massachusetts (bulbouts and

raised intersection), Corvallis, Oregon (pedestrian refuge island), Seattle, Was

hington (bulbouts), and Sacramento, California (refuge islands). The key findings

include that none of the treatments had a significant effect on the percentage o

f pedestrians for whom motorists yielded, the treatments usually did not have a s

ignificant effect on average pedestrian waiting time, and refuge islands often se

rved to channelize pedestrians into marked crosswalks. The raised intersection in

Cambridge also increased the percentage of pedestrians who crossed in the crossw

alk. While traffic calming devices have the potential for improving the pedestria

n environment, these devices by themselves do not guarantee that motorists will s

low down or yield to pedestrians. DE Before-and-after-studies; Behavior-; Bulbou

ts-; Cambridge-Massachusetts; Corvallis-Oregon; Crosswalks-; Drivers-; Midblock-c

rossings; Pedestrian-channelization; Pedestrian-safety; Pedestrians-; Raised-inte

rsections; Refuge-islands; Sacramento-California; Seattle-Washington; Traffic-cal

ming; Traffic-safety; Waiting-time SC SAFETY (H51); HUMAN-FACTORS (H5); OPERATI


ROL (I7) PA Transportation Research Board Business Office AN 007814 UD 000



n-AC; Whiting-WC; Gallagher-B SO Transportation Research Record. 000. (1705) pp

0-5 (4 Fig., 4 Tab., 10 Ref.) NT This paper appears in Transportation Research

Record No. 1705, Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Research 000. PB Transp

ortation Research Board, 101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 0418, USA

PY 000 IS 061-181 RN 0006685 LA English AB Pedestrian accident analys

is and reconstruction remain the most difficult areas for the accident analyst. A

lthough data relating to average pedestrian walking speeds, perception-reaction,

and pedestrian accident reconstruction can be found in the literature, proper ped

estrian study data pertaining to real-life situations are lacking. Pedestrians we

re observed at signal-controlled crosswalk intersections, and their perception-re

action to the crosswalk signal, acceleration rate to reach constant walking veloc

ity, and average walking speed once steady state velocity is achieved were determ

ined. Experimental test data collected regarding pedestrian gait analysis, initia

tion, and steady state walking speeds are presented. Real world pedestrian obse

rvations were gathered at a variety of intersections, ranging from busy downtown

intersections to suburban intersections throughout the greater Los Angeles area.

Kinematic data on pedestrian movements were obtained using high-speed digital vid

eo. A high-speed video motion analysis system was used to reduce the data and to

obtain the mean acceleration and time to steady state walking velocity. Perceptio

n-reaction data collected on 88 subjects show a significant percentage of the pe

destrians initiating movement within 1 s of Walk light illumination. Some differe

nces were observed when the state of anticipation was being considered, and these

results are presented. The mean acceleration (0.14 +/- 0.0 g) and steady state

velocity (1.6 +/- 0.4 m/s) values did not demonstrate a significant difference

between males and females. The width of the street or initial state of anticipati

on did not have an effect on either mean acceleration values or steady state velo

cities. DE Acceleration-; Accident-reconstruction; Average-travel-speed; Central

-business-districts; Crosswalks-; Field-studies; Los-Angeles-California; Pedestri

an-accidents; Pedestrian-gait-analysis; Pedestrian-movement; Pedestrian-signals;

Signalized-intersections; Steady-state; Suburbs-; Velocity-; Video-cameras; Walki


A Transportation Research Board Business Office AN 00781 UD 00011 15 of 17


an-G; Leso-L SO Transportation Research Record. 000. (1705) pp16-1 (1 Fig.,

Tab.) NT This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1705, Pedestri

an and Bicycle Transportation Research 000. PB Transportation Research Board,

101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 0418, USA PY 000 IS 061-181 RN

0006685 LA English AB Painting a yellow center line at blind curves on a b

usy multiuser path (bicyclists, pedestrians, in-line skaters, runners) decreased

the percentage of people who went the wrong way on the path, in a before-and-af

ter study whose sample size was ,147. A busy .6-m (1-ft) paved recreational an

d commuting path in Philadelphia circles the Schuylkill River for 1.5 km (8.4 mi

). There are numerous blind curves caused by hedges, rock outcrops, and bridge pi

ers. Many people were traveling on the wrong side around sharp blind curves. Coun

ts were taken and videotapes made in order to determine the percentage of bicycli

sts, pedestrians, in-line skaters, and runners on the proper side, on the wrong s

ide, and passing on the wrong side. Then a solid-yellow center line and direction

al arrows were neatly spray painted at the blind curves, and after counts were ta

ken. The percentage of wrong-side travel fell from 5% to 15%, a 57% reduction. W

hite lines and arrows were placed at driveways and road crossings. The white line

s reduced wrong-way travel from 0% to 10%, a reduction of 66%. Painted center li

nes kept people on the proper side and reduced the likelihood of conflicts and cr

ashes. Paint is easy, fast, and inexpensive, and creates no physical obstacle; it

is hard to damage and it works without education of the public. DE Before-and-a

fter-studies; Bikeways-; Blind-curves; Center-lines; Commuting-paths; Crosswalks-

; Directional-arrows; Driveways-; Philadelphia-Pennsylvania; Recreational-paths;

Shared-use-paths; Skating-; Traffic-conflicts; Walkways-; Wrong-way-travel SC FA


search Board Business Office AN 00781 UD 00011 16 of 17 SB TRB-TRIS TI CA


JS; Bigelow-JA; Garber-NJ SO Transportation Research Record. 000. (1705) pp-15

(5 Fig., Tab., 15 Ref.) NT This paper appears in Transportation Research Reco

rd No. 1705, Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Research 000. PB Transportat

ion Research Board, 101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 0418, USA PY

000 IS 061-181 RN 0006685 LA English AB Unlike the case with airport te

rminals or the central business district, the quality of suburban pedestrian faci

lities is most likely affected less by congestion and more by safety, the walking

environment, and aesthetics. Because the Highway Capacity Manual does not expl

icitly capture such factors when measuring pedestrian level of service (LOS), res

earchers have proposed innovative rating scales that do. These scales use either

measurable characteristics, such as walkway width, median openings, and signaliza

tion parameters, or user perceptions, such as continuity and convenience, to rate

a pedestrian facility. Unfortunately, the results of these scales are not always

easy to interpret. For example, in a scaling system for pedestrian facilities in

which a raised curb median counts 6 points and a blinking pedestrian-crossing si

gnal counts points, the developers of the scale believed that the median would

be twice as valuable to pedestrians as the crossing signal. But would pedestrians

agree? A scaling system was developed for pedestrian LOS and calibrated using vi

sualization (computer-aided modeling techniques consisting of still shots and ani

mations). Subjects perceived ratings of a pedestrian facility after they viewed

still pictures and animations of the facility were compared with the computed rat

ing of the facility from an LOS scale. The chief value of this method is that it

helps ensure that pedestrian crossing needs are systematically considered and tha

t engineers, planners, and the public agree on the calibration of a pedestrian LO

S scale. The methodology is also applicable in urban areas where pedestrian needs

beyond physical capacity are to be explicitly considered. The approach is origin

al in that visualization as a simulation and data analysis tool was used to calib

rate a pedestrian LOS scale. DE Aesthetics-; Calibration-; Environment-; Level-o

f-service; Pedestrian-areas; Pedestrian-facilities; Pedestrian-safety; Suburbs-;

Three-dimensional-visualization SC FACILITIES-DESIGN (H1); HIGHWAY-AND-TRANSPOR

T-PLANNING (I1) PA Transportation Research Board Business Office AN 007811 U



PRIORITIES. AU Matley-TM; Goldman-LM; Fineman-BJ SO Transportation Research Rec

ord. 000. (1705) pp1-8 ( Fig., Tab., 8 Ref.) NT This paper appears in Transp

ortation Research Record No. 1705, Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Research

000. PB Transportation Research Board, 101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washingto

n, DC, 0418, USA PY 000 IS 061-181 RN 0006685 LA English AB At metrop

olitan planning organizations such as the North Jersey Transportation Planning Au

thority (NJTPA), planning investments to support pedestrian trips for a large and

diverse metropolitan area would be an intractable challenge without an open, coo

rdinated, and cooperative approach and a strong information foundation. To addres

s this challenge, NJTPA has adopted an innovative approach using regional analysi

s and priority setting to guide planning activity for a very local scale. The des

ign and initial applications of this approach are described. Areas with proximity

and connectivity features supporting pedestrian activity were identified using d

ata available at the regional level. The data were analyzed within a pedestrian p

otential index (PPI) comprising four key indicators population densities, employ

ment densities, land use mix, and street network density, all analyzed at the cen

sus tract level. Thresholds were set to begin to find priority areas in which inv

estment in pedestrian strategies would be more likely to generate a high return i

n terms of walking trips generated. The analysis also allows local planners to un

derstand how their communities compare in relative levels of density, land use mi

x, and network connectivity. This information can help planners identify areas fo

r planning activities that would address these factors and encourage walking trip

s. With the first results from application of the PPI, NJTPA has solicited feedba

ck from state and local planning partners. With subsequent refinement, this analy

sis will be finalized for the region and incorporated in the next update of the N

JTPA Regional Transportation Plan. DE Employment-; Investments-; Land-use; Netwo

rk-connectivity; New-Jersey; North-Jersey-Transportation-Planning-Authority; Pede

strians-; Population-density; Regional-analysis; Strategic-planning; Streets-; Tr

ansportation-planning; Travel-; Trip-generation; Walking- SC PLANNING (H1); TRA

FFIC-AND-TRANSPORT-PLANNING (I7) PA Transportation Research Board Business Offi

ce AN



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