Saturday, 7 April 2012

kazinski's manifesto

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Unabombers Manifesto



1. The Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster

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for the human race. They have greatly increased the life-expectancy of

those of us who live in advanced countries, but they have

destabilized society, have made life unfulfilling, have subjected

human beings to indignities, have led to widespread psychological

suffering (in the Third World to physical suffering as well) and have

inflicted severe damage on the natural world. The continued

development of technology will worsen the situation. It will certainly

subject human beings to greater indignities and inflict greater damage

on the natural world, it will probably lead to greater social

disruption and psychological suffering, and it may lead to increased

physical suffering even in advanced countries.

. The industrial-technological system may survive or it may break

down. If it survives, it MAY eventually achieve a low level of

physical and psychological suffering, but only after passing through a

long and very painful period of adjustment and only at the cost of

permanently reducing human beings and many other living organisms to

engineered products and mere cogs in the social machine. Furthermore,

if the system survives, the consequences will be inevitable There is

no way of reforming or modifying the system so as to prevent it from

depriving people of dignity and autonomy.

. If the system breaks down the consequences will still be very

painful. But the bigger the system grows the more disastrous the

results of its breakdown will be, so if it is to break down it had

best break down sooner rather than later.

4. We therefore advocate a revolution against the industrial system.

This revolution may or may not make use of violence it may be sudden

or it may be a relatively gradual process spanning a few decades. We

cant predict any of that. But we do outline in a very general way the

measures that those who hate the industrial system should take in

order to prepare the way for a revolution against that form of

society. This is not to be a POLITICAL revolution. Its object will be

to overthrow not governments but the economic and technological basis

of the present society.

5. In this article we give attention to only some of the negative

developments that have grown out of the industrial-technological

system. Other such developments we mention only briefly or ignore

altogether. This does not mean that we regard these other developments

as unimportant. For practical reasons we have to confine our

discussion to areas that have received insufficient public attention

or in which we have something new to say. For example, since there are

well-developed environmental and wilderness movements, we have written

very little about environmental degradation or the destruction of wild

nature, even though we consider these to be highly important.


6. Almost everyone will agree that we live in a deeply troubled

society. One of the most widespread manifestations of the craziness of

our world is leftism, so a discussion of the psychology of leftism can

serve as an introduction to the discussion of the problems of modern

society in general.

7. But what is leftism? During the first half of the 0th century

leftism could have been practically identified with socialism. Today

the movement is fragmented and it is not clear who can properly be

called a leftist. When we speak of leftists in this article we have in

mind mainly socialists, collectivists, politically correct types,

feminists, gay and disability activists, animal rights activists and

the like. But not everyone who is associated with one of these

movements is a leftist. What we are trying to get at in discussing

leftism is not so much a movement or an ideology as a psychological

type, or rather a collection of related types. Thus, what we mean by

leftism will emerge more clearly in the course of our discussion of

leftist psychology (Also, see paragraphs 7-0.)

8. Even so, our conception of leftism will remain a good deal less

clear than we would wish, but there doesnt seem to be any remedy for

this. All we are trying to do is indicate in a rough and approximate

way the two psychological tendencies that we believe are the main

driving force of modern leftism. We by no means claim to be telling

the WHOLE truth about leftist psychology. Also, our discussion is

meant to apply to modern leftism only. We leave open the question of

the extent to which our discussion could be applied to the leftists of

the 1th and early 0th century.

. The two psychological tendencies that underlie modern leftism we

call feelings of inferiority and oversocialization. Feelings of

inferiority are characteristic of modern leftism as a whole, while

oversocialization is characteristic only of a certain segment of

modern leftism; but this segment is highly influential.


10. By feelings of inferiority we mean not only inferiority feelings

in the strictest sense but a whole spectrum of related traits low

self-esteem, feelings of powerlessness, depressive tendencies,

defeatism, guilt, self-hatred, etc. We argue that modern leftists tend

to have such feelings (possibly more or less repressed) and that these

feelings are decisive in determining the direction of modern leftism.

11. When someone interprets as derogatory almost anything that is said

about him (or about groups with whom he identifies) we conclude that

he has inferiority feelings or low self-esteem. This tendency is

pronounced among minority rights advocates, whether or not they belong

to the minority groups whose rights they defend. They are

hypersensitive about the words used to designate minorities. The terms

negro, oriental, handicapped or chick for an African, an

Asian, a disabled person or a woman originally had no derogatory

connotation. Broad and chick were merely the feminine equivalents

of guy, dude or fellow. The negative connotations have been

attached to these terms by the activists themselves. Some animal

rights advocates have gone so far as to reject the word pet and

insist on its replacement by animal companion. Leftist

anthropologists go to great lengths to avoid saying anything about

primitive peoples that could conceivably be interpreted as negative.

They want to replace the word primitive by nonliterate. They seem

almost paranoid about anything that might suggest that any primitive

culture is inferior to our own. (We do not mean to imply that

primitive cultures ARE inferior to ours. We merely point out the

hypersensitivity of leftish anthropologists.)

1. Those who are most sensitive about politically incorrect

terminology are not the average black ghetto-dweller, Asian immigrant,

abused woman or disabled person, but a minority of activists, many of

whom do not even belong to any oppressed group but come from

privileged strata of society. Political correctness has its stronghold

among university professors, who have secure employment with

comfortable salaries, and the majority of whom are heterosexual, white

males from middle-class families.

1. Many leftists have an intense identification with the problems of

groups that have an image of being weak (women), defeated (American

Indians), repellent (homosexuals), or otherwise inferior. The leftists

themselves feel that these groups are inferior. They would never admit

it to themselves that they have such feelings, but it is precisely

because they do see these groups as inferior that they identify with

their problems. (We do not suggest that women, Indians, etc., ARE

inferior; we are only making a point about leftist psychology).

14. Feminists are desperately anxious to prove that women are as

strong as capable as men. Clearly they are nagged by a fear that women

may NOT be as strong and as capable as men.

15. Leftists tend to hate anything that has an image of being strong,

good and successful. They hate America, they hate Western

civilization, they hate white males, they hate rationality. The

reasons that leftists give for hating the West, etc. clearly do not

correspond with their real motives. They SAY they hate the West

because it is warlike, imperialistic, sexist, ethnocentric and so

forth, but where these same faults appear in socialist countries or in

primitive cultures, the leftist finds excuses for them, or at best he

GRUDGINGLY admits that they exist; whereas he ENTHUSIASTICALLY points

out (and often greatly exaggerates) these faults where they appear in

Western civilization. Thus it is clear that these faults are not the

leftists real motive for hating America and the West. He hates

America and the West because they are strong and successful.

16. Words like self-confidence, self-reliance, initiative,

enterprise, optimism, etc. play little role in the liberal and

leftist vocabulary. The leftist is anti-individualistic,

pro-collectivist. He wants society to solve everyones needs for them,

take care of them. He is not the sort of person who has an inner sense

of confidence in his own ability to solve his own problems and satisfy

his own needs. The leftist is antagonistic to the concept of

competition because, deep inside, he feels like a loser.

17. Art forms that appeal to modern leftist intellectuals tend to

focus on sordidness, defeat and despair, or else they take an

orgiastic tone, throwing off rational control as if there were no hope

of accomplishing anything through rational calculation and all that

was left was to immerse oneself in the sensations of the moment.

18. Modern leftist philosophers tend to dismiss reason, science,

objective reality and to insist that everything is culturally

relative. It is true that one can ask serious questions about the

foundations of scientific knowledge and about how, if at all, the

concept of objective reality can be defined. But it is obvious that

modern leftist philosophers are not simply cool-headed logicians

systematically analyzing the foundations of knowledge. They are deeply

involved emotionally in their attack on truth and reality. They attack

these concepts because of their own psychological needs. For one

thing, their attack is an outlet for hostility, and, to the extent

that it is successful, it satisfies the drive for power. More

importantly, the leftist hates science and rationality because they

classify certain beliefs as true (i.e., successful, superior) and

other beliefs as false (i.e. failed, inferior). The leftists feelings

of inferiority run so deep that he cannot tolerate any classification

of some things as successful or superior and other things as failed or

inferior. This also underlies the rejection by many leftists of the

concept of mental illness and of the utility of IQ tests. Leftists are

antagonistic to genetic explanations of human abilities or behavior

because such explanations tend to make some persons appear superior or

inferior to others. Leftists prefer to give society the credit or

blame for an individuals ability or lack of it. Thus if a person is

inferior it is not his fault, but societys, because he has not been

brought up properly.

1. The leftist is not typically the kind of person whose feelings of

inferiority make him a braggart, an egotist, a bully, a self-promoter,

a ruthless competitor. This kind of person has not wholly lost faith

in himself. He has a deficit in his sense of power and self-worth, but

he can still conceive of himself as having the capacity to be strong,

and his efforts to make himself strong produce his unpleasant

behavior. [1] But the leftist is too far gone for that. His feelings

of inferiority are so ingrained that he cannot conceive of himself as

individually strong and valuable. Hence the collectivism of the

leftist. He can feel strong only as a member of a large organization

or a mass movement with which he identifies himself.

0. Notice the masochistic tendency of leftist tactics. Leftists

protest by lying down in front of vehicles, they intentionally provoke

police or racists to abuse them, etc. These tactics may often be

effective, but many leftists use them not as a means to an end but

because they PREFER masochistic tactics. Self-hatred is a leftist


1. Leftists may claim that their activism is motivated by compassion

or by moral principle, and moral principle does play a role for the

leftist of the oversocialized type. But compassion and moral principle

cannot be the main motives for leftist activism. Hostility is too

prominent a component of leftist behavior; so is the drive for power.

Moreover, much leftist behavior is not rationally calculated to be of

benefit to the people whom the leftists claim to be trying to help.

For example, if one believes that affirmative action is good for black

people, does it make sense to demand affirmative action in hostile or

dogmatic terms? Obviously it would be more productive to take a

diplomatic and conciliatory approach that would make at least verbal

and symbolic concessions to white people who think that affirmative

action discriminates against them. But leftist activists do not take

such an approach because it would not satisfy their emotional needs.

Helping black people is not their real goal. Instead, race problems

serve as an excuse for them to express their own hostility and

frustrated need for power. In doing so they actually harm black

people, because the activists hostile attitude toward the white

majority tends to intensify race hatred.

. If our society had no social problems at all, the leftists would

have to INVENT problems in order to provide themselves with an excuse

for making a fuss.

. We emphasize that the foregoing does not pretend to be an accurate

description of everyone who might be considered a leftist. It is only

a rough indication of a general tendency of leftism.


4. Psychologists use the term socialization to designate the

process by which children are trained to think and act as society

demands. A person is said to be well socialized if he believes in and

obeys the moral code of his society and fits in well as a functioning

part of that society. It may seem senseless to say that many leftists

are over-socialized, since the leftist is perceived as a rebel.

Nevertheless, the position can be defended. Many leftists are not such

rebels as they seem.

5. The moral code of our society is so demanding that no one can

think, feel and act in a completely moral way. For example, we are not

supposed to hate anyone, yet almost everyone hates somebody at some

time or other, whether he admits it to himself or not. Some people are

so highly socialized that the attempt to think, feel and act morally

imposes a severe burden on them. In order to avoid feelings of guilt,

they continually have to deceive themselves about their own motives

and find moral explanations for feelings and actions that in reality

have a non-moral origin. We use the term oversocialized to describe

such people.


6. Oversocialization can lead to low self-esteem, a sense of

powerlessness, defeatism, guilt, etc. One of the most important means

by which our society socializes children is by making them feel

ashamed of behavior or speech that is contrary to societys

expectations. If this is overdone, or if a particular child is

especially susceptible to such feelings, he ends by feeling ashamed of

HIMSELF. Moreover the thought and the behavior of the oversocialized

person are more restricted by societys expectations than are those of

the lightly socialized person. The majority of people engage in a

significant amount of naughty behavior. They lie, they commit petty

thefts, they break traffic laws, they goof off at work, they hate

someone, they say spiteful things or they use some underhanded trick

to get ahead of the other guy. The oversocialized person cannot do

these things, or if he does do them he generates in himself a sense of

shame and self-hatred. The oversocialized person cannot even

experience, without guilt, thoughts or feelings that are contrary to

the accepted morality; he cannot think unclean thoughts. And

socialization is not just a matter of morality; we are socialized to

confirm to many norms of behavior that do not fall under the heading

of morality. Thus the oversocialized person is kept on a psychological

leash and spends his life running on rails that society has laid down

for him. In many oversocialized people this results in a sense of

constraint and powerlessness that can be a severe hardship. We suggest

that oversocialization is among the more serious cruelties that human

beings inflict on one another.

7. We argue that a very important and influential segment of the

modern left is oversocialized and that their oversocialization is of

great importance in determining the direction of modern leftism.

Leftists of the oversocialized type tend to be intellectuals or

members of the upper-middle class. Notice that university

intellectuals () constitute the most highly socialized segment of our

society and also the most left-wing segment.

8. The leftist of the oversocialized type tries to get off his

psychological leash and assert his autonomy by rebelling. But usually

he is not strong enough to rebel against the most basic values of

society. Generally speaking, the goals of todays leftists are NOT in

conflict with the accepted morality. On the contrary, the left takes

an accepted moral principle, adopts it as its own, and then accuses

mainstream society of violating that principle. Examples racial

equality, equality of the sexes, helping poor people, peace as opposed

to war, nonviolence generally, freedom of expression, kindness to

animals. More fundamentally, the duty of the individual to serve

society and the duty of society to take care of the individual. All

these have been deeply rooted values of our society (or at least of

its middle and upper classes (4) for a long time. These values are

explicitly or implicitly expressed or presupposed in most of the

material presented to us by the mainstream communications media and

the educational system. Leftists, especially those of the

oversocialized type, usually do not rebel against these principles but

justify their hostility to society by claiming (with some degree of

truth) that society is not living up to these principles.

. Here is an illustration of the way in which the oversocialized

leftist shows his real attachment to the conventional attitudes of our

society while pretending to be in rebellion against it. Many leftists

push for affirmative action, for moving black people into

high-prestige jobs, for improved education in black schools and more

money for such schools; the way of life of the black underclass they

regard as a social disgrace. They want to integrate the black man into

the system, make him a business executive, a lawyer, a scientist just

like upper-middle-class white people. The leftists will reply that the

last thing they want is to make the black man into a copy of the white

man; instead, they want to preserve African American culture. But in

what does this preservation of African American culture consist? It

can hardly consist in anything more than eating black-style food,

listening to black-style music, wearing black-style clothing and going

to a black-style church or mosque. In other words, it can express

itself only in superficial matters. In all ESSENTIAL respects more

leftists of the oversocialized type want to make the black man conform

to white, middle-class ideals. They want to make him study technical

subjects, become an executive or a scientist, spend his life climbing

the status ladder to prove that black people are as good as white.

They want to make black fathers responsible. they want black gangs

to become nonviolent, etc. But these are exactly the values of the

industrial-technological system. The system couldnt care less what

kind of music a man listens to, what kind of clothes he wears or what

religion he believes in as long as he studies in school, holds a

respectable job, climbs the status ladder, is a responsible parent,

is nonviolent and so forth. In effect, however much he may deny it,

the oversocialized leftist wants to integrate the black man into the

system and make him adopt its values.

0. We certainly do not claim that leftists, even of the

oversocialized type, NEVER rebel against the fundamental values of our

society. Clearly they sometimes do. Some oversocialized leftists have

gone so far as to rebel against one of modern societys most important

principles by engaging in physical violence. By their own account,

violence is for them a form of liberation. In other words, by

committing violence they break through the psychological restraints

that have been trained into them. Because they are oversocialized

these restraints have been more confining for them than for others;

hence their need to break free of them. But they usually justify their

rebellion in terms of mainstream values. If they engage in violence

they claim to be fighting against racism or the like.

1. We realize that many objections could be raised to the foregoing

thumb-nail sketch of leftist psychology. The real situation is

complex, and anything like a complete description of it would take

several volumes even if the necessary data were available. We claim

only to have indicated very roughly the two most important tendencies

in the psychology of modern leftism.

. The problems of the leftist are indicative of the problems of our

society as a whole. Low self-esteem, depressive tendencies and

defeatism are not restricted to the left. Though they are especially

noticeable in the left, they are widespread in our society. And

todays society tries to socialize us to a greater extent than any

previous society. We are even told by experts how to eat, how to

exercise, how to make love, how to raise our kids and so forth.


. Human beings have a need (probably based in biology) for something

that we will call the power process. This is closely related to the

need for power (which is widely recognized) but is not quite the same

thing. The power process has four elements. The three most clear-cut

of these we call goal, effort and attainment of goal. (Everyone needs

to have goals whose attainment requires effort, and needs to succeed

in attaining at least some of his goals.) The fourth element is more

difficult to define and may not be necessary for everyone. We call it

autonomy and will discuss it later (paragraphs 4-44).

4. Consider the hypothetical case of a man who can have anything he

wants just by wishing for it. Such a man has power, but he will

develop serious psychological problems. At first he will have a lot of

fun, but by and by he will become acutely bored and demoralized.

Eventually he may become clinically depressed. History shows that

leisured aristocracies tend to become decadent. This is not true of

fighting aristocracies that have to struggle to maintain their power.

But leisured, secure aristocracies that have no need to exert

themselves usually become bored, hedonistic and demoralized, even

though they have power. This shows that power is not enough. One must

have goals toward which to exercise ones power.

5. Everyone has goals; if nothing else, to obtain the physical

necessities of life food, water and whatever clothing and shelter are

made necessary by the climate. But the leisured aristocrat obtains

these things without effort. Hence his boredom and demoralization.

6. Nonattainment of important goals results in death if the goals are

physical necessities, and in frustration if nonattainment of the goals

is compatible with survival. Consistent failure to attain goals

throughout life results in defeatism, low self-esteem or depression.

7. Thus, in order to avoid serious psychological problems, a human

being needs goals whose attainment requires effort, and he must have a

reasonable rate of success in attaining his goals.


8. But not every leisured aristocrat becomes bored and demoralized.

For example, the emperor Hirohito, instead of sinking into decadent

hedonism, devoted himself to marine biology, a field in which he

became distinguished. When people do not have to exert themselves to

satisfy their physical needs they often set up artificial goals for

themselves. In many cases they then pursue these goals with the same

energy and emotional involvement that they otherwise would have put

into the search for physical necessities. Thus the aristocrats of the

Roman Empire had their literary pretentions; many European aristocrats

a few centuries ago invested tremendous time and energy in hunting,

though they certainly didnt need the meat; other aristocracies have

competed for status through elaborate displays of wealth; and a few

aristocrats, like Hirohito, have turned to science.

. We use the term surrogate activity to designate an activity that

is directed toward an artificial goal that people set up for

themselves merely in order to have some goal to work toward, or let us

say, merely for the sake of the fulfillment that they get from

pursuing the goal. Here is a rule of thumb for the identification of

surrogate activities. Given a person who devotes much time and energy

to the pursuit of goal X, ask yourself this If he had to devote most

of his time and energy to satisfying his biological needs, and if that

effort required him to use his physical and mental facilities in a

varied and interesting way, would he feel seriously deprived because

he did not attain goal X? If the answer is no, then the persons

pursuit of a goal X is a surrogate activity. Hirohitos studies in

marine biology clearly constituted a surrogate activity, since it is

pretty certain that if Hirohito had had to spend his time working at

interesting non-scientific tasks in order to obtain the necessities of

life, he would not have felt deprived because he didnt know all about

the anatomy and life-cycles of marine animals. On the other hand the

pursuit of sex and love (for example) is not a surrogate activity,

because most people, even if their existence were otherwise

satisfactory, would feel deprived if they passed their lives without

ever having a relationship with a member of the opposite sex. (But

pursuit of an excessive amount of sex, more than one really needs, can

be a surrogate activity.)

40. In modern industrial society only minimal effort is necessary to

satisfy ones physical needs. It is enough to go through a training

program to acquire some petty technical skill, then come to work on

time and exert very modest effort needed to hold a job. The only

requirements are a moderate amount of intelligence, and most of all,

simple OBEDIENCE. If one has those, society takes care of one from

cradle to grave. (Yes, there is an underclass that cannot take

physical necessities for granted, but we are speaking here of

mainstream society.) Thus it is not surprising that modern society is

full of surrogate activities. These include scientific work, athletic

achievement, humanitarian work, artistic and literary creation,

climbing the corporate ladder, acquisition of money and material goods

far beyond the point at which they cease to give any additional

physical satisfaction, and social activism when it addresses issues

that are not important for the activist personally, as in the case of

white activists who work for the rights of nonwhite minorities. These

are not always pure surrogate activities, since for many people they

may be motivated in part by needs other than the need to have some

goal to pursue. Scientific work may be motivated in part by a drive

for prestige, artistic creation by a need to express feelings,

militant social activism by hostility. But for most people who pursue

them, these activities are in large part surrogate activities. For

example, the majority of scientists will probably agree that the

fulfillment they get from their work is more important than the

money and prestige they earn.

41. For many if not most people, surrogate activities are less

satisfying than the pursuit of real goals ( that is, goals that people

would want to attain even if their need for the power process were

already fulfilled). One indication of this is the fact that, in many

or most cases, people who are deeply involved in surrogate activities

are never satisfied, never at rest. Thus the money-maker constantly

strives for more and more wealth. The scientist no sooner solves one

problem than he moves on to the next. The long-distance runner drives

himself to run always farther and faster. Many people who pursue

surrogate activities will say that they get far more fulfillment from

these activities than they do from the mundane business of

satisfying their biological needs, but that it is because in our

society the effort needed to satisfy the biological needs has been

reduced to triviality. More importantly, in our society people do not

satisfy their biological needs AUTONOMOUSLY but by functioning as

parts of an immense social machine. In contrast, people generally have

a great deal of autonomy in pursuing their surrogate activities. have

a great deal of autonomy in pursuing their surrogate activities.


4. Autonomy as a part of the power process may not be necessary for

every individual. But most people need a greater or lesser degree of

autonomy in working toward their goals. Their efforts must be

undertaken on their own initiative and must be under their own

direction and control. Yet most people do not have to exert this

initiative, direction and control as single individuals. It is usually

enough to act as a member of a SMALL group. Thus if half a dozen

people discuss a goal among themselves and make a successful joint

effort to attain that goal, their need for the power process will be

served. But if they work under rigid orders handed down from above

that leave them no room for autonomous decision and initiative, then

their need for the power process will not be served. The same is true

when decisions are made on a collective bases if the group making the

collective decision is so large that the role of each individual is



4. It is true that some individuals seem to have little need for

autonomy. Either their drive for power is weak or they satisfy it by

identifying themselves with some powerful organization to which they

belong. And then there are unthinking, animal types who seem to be

satisfied with a purely physical sense of power(the good combat

soldier, who gets his sense of power by developing fighting skills

that he is quite content to use in blind obedience to his superiors).

44. But for most people it is through the power process-having a goal,

making an AUTONOMOUS effort and attaining t the goal-that self-esteem,

self-confidence and a sense of power are acquired. When one does not

have adequate opportunity to go throughout the power process the

consequences are (depending on the individual and on the way the power

process is disrupted) boredom, demoralization, low self-esteem,

inferiority feelings, defeatism, depression, anxiety, guilt,

frustration, hostility, spouse or child abuse, insatiable hedonism,

abnormal sexual behavior, sleep disorders, eating disorders, etc.



45. Any of the foregoing symptoms can occur in any society, but in

modern industrial society they are present on a massive scale. We

arent the first to mention that the world today seems to be going

crazy. This sort of thing is not normal for human societies. There is

good reason to believe that primitive man suffered from less stress

and frustration and was better satisfied with his way of life than

modern man is. It is true that not all was sweetness and light in

primitive societies. Abuse of women and common among the Australian

aborigines, transexuality was fairly common among some of the American

Indian tribes. But is does appear that GENERALLY SPEAKING the kinds of

problems that we have listed in the preceding paragraph were far less

common among primitive peoples than they are in modern society.

46. We attribute the social and psychological problems of modern

society to the fact that that society requires people to live under

conditions radically different from those under which the human race

evolved and to behave in ways that conflict with the patterns of

behavior that the human race developed while living under the earlier

conditions. It is clear from what we have already written that we

consider lack of opportunity to properly experience the power process

as the most important of the abnormal conditions to which modern

society subjects people. But it is not the only one. Before dealing

with disruption of the power process as a source of social problems we

will discuss some of the other sources.

47. Among the abnormal conditions present in modern industrial society

are excessive density of population, isolation of man from nature,

excessive rapidity of social change and the break-down of natural

small-scale communities such as the extended family, the village or

the tribe.

48. It is well known that crowding increases stress and aggression.

The degree of crowding that exists today and the isolation of man from

nature are consequences of technological progress. All pre-industrial

societies were predominantly rural. The industrial Revolution vastly

increased the size of cities and the proportion of the population that

lives in them, and modern agricultural technology has made it possible

for the Earth to support a far denser population than it ever did

before. (Also, technology exacerbates the effects of crowding because

it puts increased disruptive powers in peoples hands. For example, a

variety of noise-making devices power mowers, radios, motorcycles,

etc. If the use of these devices is unrestricted, people who want

peace and quiet are frustrated by the noise. If their use is

restricted, people who use the devices are frustrated by the

regulations... But if these machines had never been invented there

would have been no conflict and no frustration generated by them.)

4. For primitive societies the natural world (which usually changes

only slowly) provided a stable framework and therefore a sense of

security. In the modern world it is human society that dominates

nature rather than the other way around, and modern society changes

very rapidly owing to technological change. Thus there is no stable


50. The conservatives are fools They whine about the decay of

traditional values, yet they enthusiastically support technological

progress and economic growth. Apparently it never occurs to them that

you cant make rapid, drastic changes in the technology and the

economy of a society with out causing rapid changes in all other

aspects of the society as well, and that such rapid changes inevitably

break down traditional values.

51.The breakdown of traditional values to some extent implies the

breakdown of the bonds that hold together traditional small-scale

social groups. The disintegration of small-scale social groups is also

promoted by the fact that modern conditions often require or tempt

individuals to move to new locations, separating themselves from their

communities. Beyond that, a technological society HAS TO weaken family

ties and local communities if it is to function efficiently. In modern

society an individuals loyalty must be first to the system and only

secondarily to a small-scale community, because if the internal

loyalties of small-scale small-scale communities were stronger than

loyalty to the system, such communities would pursue their own

advantage at the expense of the system.

5. Suppose that a public official or a corporation executive appoints

his cousin, his friend or his co-religionist to a position rather than

appointing the person best qualified for the job. He has permitted

personal loyalty to supersede his loyalty to the system, and that is

nepotism or discrimination, both of which are terrible sins in

modern society. Would-be industrial societies that have done a poor

job of subordinating personal or local loyalties to loyalty to the

system are usually very inefficient. (Look at Latin America.) Thus an

advanced industrial society can tolerate only those small-scale

communities that are emasculated, tamed and made into tools of the



5. Crowding, rapid change and the breakdown of communities have been

widely recognized as sources of social problems. but we do not believe

they are enough to account for the extent of the problems that are

seen today.

54. A few pre-industrial cities were very large and crowded, yet their

inhabitants do not seem to have suffered from psychological problems

to the same extent as modern man. In America today there still are

uncrowded rural areas, and we find there the same problems as in urban

areas, though the problems tend to be less acute in the rural areas.

Thus crowding does not seem to be the decisive factor.

55. On the growing edge of the American frontier during the 1th

century, the mobility of the population probably broke down extended

families and small-scale social groups to at least the same extent as

these are broken down today. In fact, many nuclear families lived by

choice in such isolation, having no neighbors within several miles,

that they belonged to no community at all, yet they do not seem to

have developed problems as a result.

56.Furthermore, change in American frontier society was very rapid and

deep. A man might be born and raised in a log cabin, outside the reach

of law and order and fed largely on wild meat; and by the time he

arrived at old age he might be working at a regular job and living in

an ordered community with effective law enforcement. This was a deeper

change that that which typically occurs in the life of a modern

individual, yet it does not seem to have led to psychological

problems. In fact, 1th century American society had an optimistic and

self-confident tone, quite unlike that of todays society. [8]

57. The difference, we argue, is that modern man has the sense

(largely justified) that change is IMPOSED on him, whereas the 1th

century frontiersman had the sense (also largely justified) that he

created change himself, by his own choice. Thus a pioneer settled on a

piece of land of his own choosing and made it into a farm through his

own effort. In those days an entire county might have only a couple of

hundred inhabitants and was a far more isolated and autonomous entity

than a modern county is. Hence the pioneer farmer participated as a

member of a relatively small group in the creation of a new, ordered

community. One may well question whether the creation of this

community was an improvement, but at any rate it satisfied the

pioneers need for the power process.

58. It would be possible to give other examples of societies in which

there has been rapid change and/or lack of close community ties

without he kind of massive behavioral aberration that is seen in

todays industrial society. We contend that the most important cause

of social and psychological problems in modern society is the fact

that people have insufficient opportunity to go through the power

process in a normal way. We dont mean to say that modern society is

the only one in which the power process has been disrupted. Probably

most if not all civilized societies have interfered with the power

process to a greater or lesser extent. But in modern industrial

society the problem has become particularly acute. Leftism, at least

in its recent (mid-to-late -0th century) form, is in part a symptom

of deprivation with respect to the power process.


5. We divide human drives into three groups (1) those drives that

can be satisfied with minimal effort; () those that can be satisfied

but only at the cost of serious effort; () those that cannot be

adequately satisfied no matter how much effort one makes. The power

process is the process of satisfying the drives of the second group.

The more drives there are in the third group, the more there is

frustration, anger, eventually defeatism, depression, etc.

60. In modern industrial society natural human drives tend to be

pushed into the first and third groups, and the second group tends to

consist increasingly of artificially created drives.

61. In primitive societies, physical necessities generally fall into

group They can be obtained, but only at the cost of serious effort.

But modern society tends to guaranty the physical necessities to

everyone [] in exchange for only minimal effort, hence physical needs

are pushed into group 1. (There may be disagreement about whether the

effort needed to hold a job is minimal; but usually, in lower- to

middle-level jobs, whatever effort is required is merely that of

obedience. You sit or stand where you are told to sit or stand and do

what you are told to do in the way you are told to do it. Seldom do

you have to exert yourself seriously, and in any case you have hardly

any autonomy in work, so that the need for the power process is not

well served.)

6. Social needs, such as sex, love and status, often remain in group

in modern society, depending on the situation of the individual.

[10] But, except for people who have a particularly strong drive for

status, the effort required to fulfill the social drives is

insufficient to satisfy adequately the need for the power process.

6. So certain artificial needs have been created that fall into group

, hence serve the need for the power process. Advertising and

marketing techniques have been developed that make many people feel

they need things that their grandparents never desired or even dreamed

of. It requires serious effort to earn enough money to satisfy these

artificial needs, hence they fall into group . (But see paragraphs

80-8.) Modern man must satisfy his need for the power process largely

through pursuit of the artificial needs created by the advertising and

marketing industry [11], and through surrogate activities.

64. It seems that for many people, maybe the majority, these

artificial forms of the power process are insufficient. A theme that

appears repeatedly in the writings of the social critics of the second

half of the 0th century is the sense of purposelessness that afflicts

many people in modern society. (This purposelessness is often called

by other names such as anomic or middle-class vacuity.) We suggest

that the so-called identity crisis is actually a search for a sense

of purpose, often for commitment to a suitable surrogate activity. It

may be that existentialism is in large part a response to the

purposelessness of modern life. [1] Very widespread in modern society

is the search for fulfillment. But we think that for the majority of

people an activity whose main goal is fulfillment (that is, a

surrogate activity) does not bring completely satisfactory

fulfillment. In other words, it does not fully satisfy the need for

the power process. (See paragraph 41.) That need can be fully

satisfied only through activities that have some external goal, such

as physical necessities, sex, love, status, revenge, etc.

65. Moreover, where goals are pursued through earning money, climbing

the status ladder or functioning as part of the system in some other

way, most people are not in a position to pursue their goals

AUTONOMOUSLY. Most workers are someone elses employee as, as we

pointed out in paragraph 61, must spend their days doing what they are

told to do in the way they are told to do it. Even most people who are

in business for themselves have only limited autonomy. It is a chronic

complaint of small-business persons and entrepreneurs that their hands

are tied by excessive government regulation. Some of these regulations

are doubtless unnecessary, but for the most part government

regulations are essential and inevitable parts of our extremely

complex society. A large portion of small business today operates on

the franchise system. It was reported in the Wall Street Journal a few

years ago that many of the franchise-granting companies require

applicants for franchises to take a personality test that is designed

to EXCLUDE those who have creativity and initiative, because such

persons are not sufficiently docile to go along obediently with the

franchise system. This excludes from small business many of the people

who most need autonomy.

66. Today people live more by virtue of what the system does FOR them

or TO them than by virtue of what they do for themselves. And what

they do for themselves is done more and more along channels laid down

by the system. Opportunities tend to be those that the system

provides, the opportunities must be exploited in accord with the rules

and regulations [1], and techniques prescribed by experts must be

followed if there is to be a chance of success.

67. Thus the power process is disrupted in our society through a

deficiency of real goals and a deficiency of autonomy in pursuit of

goals. But it is also disrupted because of those human drives that

fall into group the drives that one cannot adequately satisfy no

matter how much effort one makes. One of these drives is the need for

security. Our lives depend on decisions made by other people; we have

no control over these decisions and usually we do not even know the

people who make them. (We live in a world in which relatively few

people - maybe 500 or 1,00 - make the important decisions - Philip B.

Heymann of Harvard Law School, quoted by Anthony Lewis, New York

Times, April 1, 15.) Our lives depend on whether safety standards

at a nuclear power plant are properly maintained; on how much

pesticide is allowed to get into our food or how much pollution into

our air; on how skillful (or incompetent) our doctor is; whether we

lose or get a job may depend on decisions made by government

economists or corporation executives; and so forth. Most individuals

are not in a position to secure themselves against these threats to

more [than] a very limited extent. The individuals search for

security is therefore frustrated, which leads to a sense of


68. It may be objected that primitive man is physically less secure

than modern man, as is shown by his shorter life expectancy; hence

modern man suffers from less, not more than the amount of insecurity

that is normal for human beings. but psychological security does not

closely correspond with physical security. What makes us FEEL secure

is not so much objective security as a sense of confidence in our

ability to take care of ourselves. Primitive man, threatened by a

fierce animal or by hunger, can fight in self-defense or travel in

search of food. He has no certainty of success in these efforts, but

he is by no means helpless against the things that threaten him. The

modern individual on the other hand is threatened by many things

against which he is helpless; nuclear accidents, carcinogens in food,

environmental pollution, war, increasing taxes, invasion of his

privacy by large organizations, nation-wide social or economic

phenomena that may disrupt his way of life.

6. It is true that primitive man is powerless against some of the

things that threaten him; disease for example. But he can accept the

risk of disease stoically. It is part of the nature of things, it is

no ones fault, unless is the fault of some imaginary, impersonal

demon. But threats to the modern individual tend to be MAN-MADE. They

are not the results of chance but are IMPOSED on him by other persons

whose decisions he, as an individual, is unable to influence.

Consequently he feels frustrated, humiliated and angry.

70. Thus primitive man for the most part has his security in his own

hands (either as an individual or as a member of a SMALL group)

whereas the security of modern man is in the hands of persons or

organizations that are too remote or too large for him to be able

personally to influence them. So modern mans drive for security tends

to fall into groups 1 and ; in some areas (food, shelter, etc.) his

security is assured at the cost of only trivial effort, whereas in

other areas he CANNOT attain security. (The foregoing greatly

simplifies the real situation, but it does indicate in a rough,

general way how the condition of modern man differs from that of

primitive man.)

71. People have many transitory drives or impulses that are necessary

frustrated in modern life, hence fall into group . One may become

angry, but modern society cannot permit fighting. In many situations

it does not even permit verbal aggression. When going somewhere one

may be in a hurry, or one may be in a mood to travel slowly, but one

generally has no choice but to move with the flow of traffic and obey

the traffic signals. One may want to do ones work in a different way,

but usually one can work only according to the rules laid down by

ones employer. In many other ways as well, modern man is strapped

down by a network of rules and regulations (explicit or implicit) that

frustrate many of his impulses and thus interfere with the power

process. Most of these regulations cannot be disposed with, because

the are necessary for the functioning of industrial society.

7. Modern society is in certain respects extremely permissive. In

matters that are irrelevant to the functioning of the system we can

generally do what we please. We can believe in any religion we like

(as long as it does not encourage behavior that is dangerous to the

system). We can go to bed with anyone we like (as long as we practice

safe sex). We can do anything we like as long as it is UNIMPORTANT.

But in all IMPORTANT matters the system tends increasingly to regulate

our behavior.

7. Behavior is regulated not only through explicit rules and not only

by the government. Control is often exercised through indirect

coercion or through psychological pressure or manipulation, and by

organizations other than the government, or by the system as a whole.

Most large organizations use some form of propaganda [14] to

manipulate public attitudes or behavior. Propaganda is not limited to

commercials and advertisements, and sometimes it is not even

consciously intended as propaganda by the people who make it. For

instance, the content of entertainment programming is a powerful form

of propaganda. An example of indirect coercion There is no law that

says we have to go to work every day and follow our employers orders.

Legally there is nothing to prevent us from going to live in the wild

like primitive people or from going into business for ourselves. But

in practice there is very little wild country left, and there is room

in the economy for only a limited number of small business owners.

Hence most of us can survive only as someone elses employee.

74. We suggest that modern mans obsession with longevity, and with

maintaining physical vigor and sexual attractiveness to an advanced

age, is a symptom of unfulfillment resulting from deprivation with

respect to the power process. The mid-life crisis also is such a

symptom. So is the lack of interest in having children that is fairly

common in modern society but almost unheard-of in primitive societies.

75. In primitive societies life is a succession of stages. The needs

and purposes of one stage having been fulfilled, there is no

particular reluctance about passing on to the next stage. A young man

goes through the power process by becoming a hunter, hunting not for

sport or for fulfillment but to get meat that is necessary for food.

(In young women the process is more complex, with greater emphasis on

social power; we wont discuss that here.) This phase having been

successfully passed through, the young man has no reluctance about

settling down to the responsibilities of raising a family. (In

contrast, some modern people indefinitely postpone having children

because they are too busy seeking some kind of fulfillment. We

suggest that the fulfillment they need is adequate experience of the

power process -- with real goals instead of the artificial goals of

surrogate activities.) Again, having successfully raised his children,

going through the power process by providing them with the physical

necessities, the primitive man feels that his work is done and he is

prepared to accept old age (if he survives that long) and death. Many

modern people, on the other hand, are disturbed by the prospect of

death, as is shown by the amount of effort they expend trying to

maintain their physical condition, appearance and health. We argue

that this is due to unfulfillment resulting from the fact that they

have never put their physical powers to any use, have never gone

through the power process using their bodies in a serious way. It is

not the primitive man, who has used his body daily for practical

purposes, who fears the deterioration of age, but the modern man, who

has never had a practical use for his body beyond walking from his car

to his house. It is the man whose need for the power process has been

satisfied during his life who is best prepared to accept the end of

that life.

76. In response to the arguments of this section someone will say,

Society must find a way to give people the opportunity to go through

the power process. For such people the value of the opportunity is

destroyed by the very fact that society gives it to them. What they

need is to find or make their own opportunities. As long as the system

GIVES them their opportunities it still has them on a leash. To attain

autonomy they must get off that leash.


77. Not everyone in industrial-technological society suffers from

psychological problems. Some people even profess to be quite satisfied

with society as it is. We now discuss some of the reasons why people

differ so greatly in their response to modern society.

78. First, there doubtless are differences in the strength of the

drive for power. Individuals with a weak drive for power may have

relatively little need to go through the power process, or at least

relatively little need for autonomy in the power process. These are

docile types who would have been happy as plantation darkies in the

Old South. (We dont mean to sneer at plantation darkies of the Old

South. To their credit, most of the slaves were NOT content with their

servitude. We do sneer at people who ARE content with servitude.)

7. Some people may have some exceptional drive, in pursuing which

they satisfy their need for the power process. For example, those who

have an unusually strong drive for social status may spend their whole

lives climbing the status ladder without ever getting bored with that


80. People vary in their susceptibility to advertising and marketing

techniques. Some people are so susceptible that, even if they make a

great deal of money, they cannot satisfy their constant craving for

the shiny new toys that the marketing industry dangles before their

eyes. So they always feel hard-pressed financially even if their

income is large, and their cravings are frustrated.

81. Some people have low susceptibility to advertising and marketing

techniques. These are the people who arent interested in money.

Material acquisition does not serve their need for the power process.

8. People who have medium susceptibility to advertising and marketing

techniques are able to earn enough money to satisfy their craving for

goods and services, but only at the cost of serious effort (putting in

overtime, taking a second job, earning promotions, etc.) Thus material

acquisition serves their need for the power process. But it does not

necessarily follow that their need is fully satisfied. They may have

insufficient autonomy in the power process (their work may consist of

following orders) and some of their drives may be frustrated (e.g.,

security, aggression). (We are guilty of oversimplification in

paragraphs 80-8 because we have assumed that the desire for material

acquisition is entirely a creation of the advertising and marketing

industry. Of course its not that simple.

8. Some people partly satisfy their need for power by identifying

themselves with a powerful organization or mass movement. An

individual lacking goals or power joins a movement or an organization,

adopts its goals as his own, then works toward these goals. When some

of the goals are attained, the individual, even though his personal

efforts have played only an insignificant part in the attainment of

the goals, feels (through his identification with the movement or

organization) as if he had gone through the power process. This

phenomenon was exploited by the fascists, nazis and communists. Our

society uses it, too, though less crudely. Example Manuel Noriega was

an irritant to the U.S. (goal punish Noriega). The U.S. invaded

Panama (effort) and punished Noriega (attainment of goal). The U.S.

went through the power process and many Americans, because of their

identification with the U.S., experienced the power process

vicariously. Hence the widespread public approval of the Panama

invasion; it gave people a sense of power. [15] We see the same

phenomenon in armies, corporations, political parties, humanitarian

organizations, religious or ideological movements. In particular,

leftist movements tend to attract people who are seeking to satisfy

their need for power. But for most people identification with a large

organization or a mass movement does not fully satisfy the need for


84. Another way in which people satisfy their need for the power

process is through surrogate activities. As we explained in paragraphs

8-40, a surrogate activity that is directed toward an artificial goal

that the individual pursues for the sake of the fulfillment that he

gets from pursuing the goal, not because he needs to attain the goal

itself. For instance, there is no practical motive for building

enormous muscles, hitting a little ball into a hole or acquiring a

complete series of postage stamps. Yet many people in our society

devote themselves with passion to bodybuilding, golf or stamp

collecting. Some people are more other-directed than others, and

therefore will more readily attack importance to a surrogate activity

simply because the people around them treat it as important or because

society tells them it is important. That is why some people get very

serious about essentially trivial activities such as sports, or

bridge, or chess, or arcane scholarly pursuits, whereas others who are

more clear-sighted never see these things as anything but the

surrogate activities that they are, and consequently never attach

enough importance to them to satisfy their need for the power process

in that way. It only remains to point out that in many cases a

persons way of earning a living is also a surrogate activity. Not a

PURE surrogate activity, since part of the motive for the activity is

to gain the physical necessities and (for some people) social status

and the luxuries that advertising makes them want. But many people put

into their work far more effort than is necessary to earn whatever

money and status they require, and this extra effort constitutes a

surrogate activity. This extra effort, together with the emotional

investment that accompanies it, is one of the most potent forces

acting toward the continual development and perfecting of the system,

with negative consequences for individual freedom (see paragraph 11).

Especially, for the most creative scientists and engineers, work tends

to be largely a surrogate activity. This point is so important that is

deserves a separate discussion, which we shall give in a moment

(paragraphs 87-).

85. In this section we have explained how many people in modern

society do satisfy their need for the power process to a greater or

lesser extent. But we think that for the majority of people the need

for the power process is not fully satisfied. In the first place,

those who have an insatiable drive for status, or who get firmly

hooked or a surrogate activity, or who identify strongly enough with

a movement or organization to satisfy their need for power in that

way, are exceptional personalities. Others are not fully satisfied

with surrogate activities or by identification with an organization

(see paragraphs 41, 64). In the second place, too much control is

imposed by the system through explicit regulation or through

socialization, which results in a deficiency of autonomy, and in

frustration due to the impossibility of attaining certain goals and

the necessity of restraining too many impulses.

86. But even if most people in industrial-technological society were

well satisfied, we (FC) would still be opposed to that form of

society, because (among other reasons) we consider it demeaning to

fulfill ones need for the power process through surrogate activities

or through identification with an organization, rather then through

pursuit of real goals.


87. Science and technology provide the most important examples of

surrogate activities. Some scientists claim that they are motivated by

curiosity, that notion is simply absurd. Most scientists work on

highly specialized problem that are not the object of any normal

curiosity. For example, is an astronomer, a mathematician or an

entomologist curious about the properties of

isopropyltrimethylmethane? Of course not. Only a chemist is curious

about such a thing, and he is curious about it only because chemistry

is his surrogate activity. Is the chemist curious about the

appropriate classification of a new species of beetle? No. That

question is of interest only to the entomologist, and he is interested

in it only because entomology is his surrogate activity. If the

chemist and the entomologist had to exert themselves seriously to

obtain the physical necessities, and if that effort exercised their

abilities in an interesting way but in some nonscientific pursuit,

then they couldnt giver a damn about isopropyltrimethylmethane or the

classification of beetles. Suppose that lack of funds for postgraduate

education had led the chemist to become an insurance broker instead of

a chemist. In that case he would have been very interested in

insurance matters but would have cared nothing about

isopropyltrimethylmethane. In any case it is not normal to put into

the satisfaction of mere curiosity the amount of time and effort that

scientists put into their work. The curiosity explanation for the

scientists motive just doesnt stand up.

88. The benefit of humanity explanation doesnt work any better.

Some scientific work has no conceivable relation to the welfare of the

human race - most of archaeology or comparative linguistics for

example. Some other areas of science present obviously dangerous

possibilities. Yet scientists in these areas are just as enthusiastic

about their work as those who develop vaccines or study air pollution.

Consider the case of Dr. Edward Teller, who had an obvious emotional

involvement in promoting nuclear power plants. Did this involvement

stem from a desire to benefit humanity? If so, then why didnt Dr.

Teller get emotional about other humanitarian causes? If he was such

a humanitarian then why did he help to develop the H-bomb? As with

many other scientific achievements, it is very much open to question

whether nuclear power plants actually do benefit humanity. Does the

cheap electricity outweigh the accumulating waste and risk of

accidents? Dr. Teller saw only one side of the question. Clearly his

emotional involvement with nuclear power arose not from a desire to

benefit humanity but from a personal fulfillment he goPlease note that this sample paper on kazinski's manifesto is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on kazinski's manifesto, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on kazinski's manifesto will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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