Wednesday, 6 April 2011

How did the Constant Communist Threat Result in Lose of Civil Liberties?

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It was beneficial for the people of Europe that the us got involved in settling their problems with Germany and Russia. If it was not for the United States Germany could have became a communist country by Russia. This would make the communists to have a strong powerful army that would be hard to defend against if a war broke out. The Yalta Conference was a meeting that took place post World War Two. It was a seven-day operation from February fourth through the eleventh in 145. Those in attendance were President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the USSR. The Conference was held in the vicinity of Yalta, Crimea in Ukraine. It marked the unity of the allies and was devoted to the allied military strategy and to negotiate on a variety of political problems. The Yalta declaration stated that the allied intention is to Destroy German militarism and Nazism and to ensure that Germany will never again be able to disturb the peace of the world. Germany was then divided into 4 occupation Zones and to govern it by a central control commission situated in Berlin.

The United States, USSR, FRANCE, and Great Britain all received a chance to take over a zone of occupation and to participate in the control commission. The declaration also announced that a conference of United Nations would also be held in San Francisco in the month of April. The declaration also notes that Germany must pay reparations to the allied nations that suffered during the war. The reparations are to be received in the first instance by the countries that have been hit the hardest by the war. Germany paid reparations in various ways. They manufactured machines, tools, ships, and equipment. German Labor was also used to fix bridges and railroads and other inter-structures that could help bring Europes economy back to its feet. Loeffler The Potsdam Conference was the gathering of the leaders of the United States, USSR, and Great Britain. Following the Unconditional surrender of Germany in World War Two a conference was held in Potsdam near Berlin. It was a long and grueling process from July 17 through August nd, 145. This Conference was to further implement the decisions previously reached at Yalta. In attendance was President Harry S. Truman, USSR Premier Joseph Stalin. Great Britain was first represented by Winston Churchill and later by the new Prime Minister Clement Richard Attlee. The Potsdam agreement was resolved after the long conference. The principal decisions were related to Germany. The biggest problem was administrating the country, until the establishment of a permanent new government. Different occupation zones were given to the military commanders of the United States, the USSR, Great Britain and France. In their respective zones of occupation, the four allys council was created to resolve questions pertaining to Germany as a whole. The land was divided by giving Poland and the USSR all lands east of the Dora and Ness rivers. The three other allies would split the rest of Germany. On July 6, the United States, British and the Chinese governments issued an ultimatum, called the Potsdam Declaration. It gave Japan the choice between annihilation and unconditional surrender. The last issue of the conference was to setup a council of foreign ministers to draft peace treaties and confirmed their intention to try axis war criminals. Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist. The Truman Doctrines main purpose was to stop the spread of communism in Europe. In 147, President Truman announced the policy known as the Truman Doctrine. Loeffler the United States gave both military and economic aid to countries that were threatened by communism. A very important part to this attempt to stop communism was the Marshall plan, which kicked off the European Recovery Program. The policy of containment was expanded to the western hemisphere when the United States and 18 other countries signed the Rio Treaty which promised aid to countries that were in danger of becoming a communist controlled state. The Truman Doctrine also agreed on starting an Organization of American States. This was made to settle any arguments among the nations in the Americas. As his final attempt to stop communism, President Truman introduced the Point Four, program to further help nations that were just starting to develop. These nations were mainly in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The Marshall Plan was a very highly successful financial aid program. Its major purpose was to aid European countries with money to quickly restore their economy. The program was propose by the US Secretary of state George C Marshall. He proposed this program while attending the Harvard University commencement on June 5, 147. He stated Europes requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products (which mostly came from America).

Marshall urged, are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of very grave character. Since there were no long term plans to help European countries although they received over 5 billion dollars in grants and loans the aid had been vaporized to meet problems that had surfaced. A huge program of financial aid was needed to help European countries get back on their feet until they could fend for themselves and once again become big trading partners with the United States. France, Italy, and Austria were really hurting economically after following a summer of drought. The United States Congress decided to aid them with up to 57 million dollars. In April 148 the Economic Cooperation act, which stated that 5. billion dollars would be granted to Europe through the Economic Cooperation Administration or ECU, which was directed by Paul G. Hoffman. The plan was a big success and ended in 15 when Europes Economy was back together. The 16 countries combined received roughly 1.15 billion dollars. Although the plan was considered a great success, many believe that it increased the tension of the Cold War. The USSR responded to the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall plan by tightening its control of Czechoslovakia. The United States then resolved to strengthen West Germany against Communism. The Soviet delegations withdrew from the four power allied control council and took steps to establish a Soviet dominated East German state. The soviets banned all rail traffic between Berlin and West Germany. An earlier act by the Soviets had suspended water and roadway transportation into the city; this caused western zones of the city to be effectively isolated by this action. The Berlin Wall was put up by the Communists in order to stop the ideas of Democracy and to increase their control on land. In response, the British and United States occupation authorities organized a system of air transportation. This act was known as the Berlin Airlift, to supply the western occupied states with food and clothing. Following the Berlin Airlift the United States, Canada and 10 other western European nations arranged a guarantee of mutual defense and assistance in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO.

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